Hearts, Minds and the First World War, Part 1: The Boys Are Going Over
Keeping musical consumers entertained during troubling times of conflict is a tremendously important aspect of American life. Songs about war can both reflect and shape public opinion while also giving civilians and soldiers alike brief moments of melodic escapism. Of course, depending on the conflict, such public opinion can range from scathing to nationalistic. Popular songs from the American Civil War describe a conflict that seemed to have little civilian enthusiasm for the “Cruel War,” how “our hearts will be lighter when the boys come home.” During the Vietnam War, songs encapsulating themes of the protest ethos of the era are plentiful like Creedence Clearwater Revival’s “Fortunate Son” (1969), Edwin Starr’s “War” (1970), The Guess Who’s “American Woman,” (1970) Crosby, Stills Nash and Young’s “Ohio” (1971) and Tony Orlando and Dawn’s “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree” (1973). Not only are they fondly remembered classic pop and rock hits, but in their time, topical antiwar songs that were major commercial hits. On the other hand, during the Spanish-American war in 1898, around the commencement of Tin Pan Alley’s commercial endeavours, many songs proclaimed eagerness for conflict like Monroe Rosenfeld’s “Uncle Sam, Tell Us Why You Are Waiting” (1898) and a whole genre exalting the exploits of Admiral George Dewey in the Philippines became popular. Equally celebratory of American involvement in international conflict were the songs of the First World War, which flooded the entertainment market after the United States declared war on Germany in 1917.
Songs during the First World War were perfectly suited to not only entertain consumers with new titles for purchase, but to keep civilians happy, enthusiastic and supportive of the war effort. After the United States officially declared war on Germany in April of 1917, nearly three years after the war began on the continent, an instant fad had been created in the pop song market. Rousing marches about going off to war and comical numbers about American soldiers living overseas became instantly, intensely and briefly fashionable. Even though the wave of songs of World War I has all of the characteristics of a superficial fad, like the Hawaiian fad preceding America’s entry into the war, such a characterisation is only a partial examination of the phenomenon. In an age when the distinctions between news and advertising were often hazy, nearly all of American pop culture had been consumed with messages of support for the war including posters, movies, public speeches and, of course, songs. What looks like a fad was actually a case of propaganda, where war advertising became both entertaining and persuasive for public opinion, containing messages of enlisting in the military, American determination to end the war and a total castigation of the enemy, Germany. For all intents and purposes, it is more appropriate to call this phenomenon a “topical fad,” for the brief and intense nature of the popularity of the songs of World War I along with the timely nature of the song topic. But not all songs about soldiers were of this serious tenor. Some song titles tell humorous and, of course, patriotic stories of Americans in Europe including an ensemble of ethnic and racial stereotypes that had not been in fashion in American pop music for years and love songs between American and French or of nurses and soldiers are also part of this entertaining facet of World War I. But this commercial take on the conflict had little connexion with the actual lives of the soldiers in the trenches, many of whom were experiencing war on an industrial scale and yet were creating their own popular music.
While most of Western Europe went to war in the late summer of 1914 and a prolonged stalemate on the Western Front continued it for the next two and a half years, America’s politicians, while being at least sympathetic to the Allies of Great Britain, Belgium and France, were not particularly interested or eager to get involved in the conflict. For Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan, his main objectives included keeping the war as far away from America as possible by adopting a foreign policy of neutrality. Automobile manufacturer Henry Ford so wholeheartedly supported pacifism and opposed the war in Europe that he organised a “Peace Ship” delegation in 1915 to meet with leaders in Europe with the goals to “Get the boys out of the trenches before Christmas.” The American public, while being pro-Ally, were also not necessarily interested in war in Europe either and popular protest songs reflect this popular isolationism. For example, in Albert Von Tilzer’s “Don’t Send My Darling Boy Away,” the cover art shows a terrified mother shielding her son from a recruiting officer; in the refrain she pleas,
Don’t take my darling boy away from me,
Don’t send him off to war,
You took his father and brothers three,
Now you come back for more;
Public opinion against war helped the sales of one of the biggest selling hits of 1915, Al Piantadosi’s “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be A Soldier,” a song which sold three million copies of sheet music and recordings by the Peerless Quartet became one of the biggest recorded hits of the year. The song encouraged American neutrality by describing mothers’ mournful pain in losing their sons; the song consequently became a commercial and cultural sensation. But there was backlash from other composers favouring war and the popularity of “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier” was the target. Laughable spoofs came onto the market like “I Didn’t Raise my Dog to Be a Sausage” or “I Didn’t Raise My Ford to Be a Jitney” mimicking the song title. While the early years of war went on in Europe, American pop songs reflected citizens’ disinterest in getting involved in the war.
American isolation would end in April of 1917, nearly three full years after the major European empires, Austria, Germany, France, Britain, Russia and the Ottomans, descended into war; for the first time, Americans would be partaking in the conflict in Europe. Pop culture would be affected, if not dominated, by an advertising campaign by the government’s Committee on Public Information, or CPI, to cultivate support and participation at all levels of society, whether by promoting enlisting soldiers or Red Cross nurses or by endorsement of Liberty Bonds to raise money for American involvement. Public opinion about the duty of America to “fight for liberty” would be shaped by persuasive advertising in all forms. Propaganda films like Pershing’s Crusaders and America’s Answer had been shown in the nearly 10,000 of the nation’s 12,000 movie theatres, accompanied by stimulating speeches by “four-minute men” about the Liberty Loan program. Patriotic and artistic posters encouraged American to “Protect the Nation’s Honor” with a stern Uncle Sam informing men, “I expect you to enlist in the Army.” One poster displays a particularly haunting image of the Statue of Liberty raising her arms in surrender as German planes bomb New York. Public opinion had shifted quickly. At the reunion ball at Princeton University in June 1917, most of “the songs were not so much the songs of former reunions” instead the ceremony took the form of a “patriotic parade.” The spectacularly lavish revue Ziegfeld Follies of 1917 featured skits about going to war and enlisting, including the Victor Herbert tune “Can’t You Hear Your Country Calling?” Composers and lyricists quickly shifted to creating positive messages about war; Albert Von Tilzer, who had two years previous written “Don’t Take My Darling Boy Away” penned the march “What Kind of American Are You?,” a song which nearly shames men into enlisting, including the biting lyric “If the Star Spangled Banner don’t make you stand and cheer/Then what are you doing over here?” War-positive spoofs of “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier” came onto the pop radar like “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Molly-Coddle” or “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Coward,” the verses of which extol the duty, bravery and nobility of enlisting in the military, regardless of the original song’s original message. With America’s entry into the First World War, a well advertised propaganda campaign, and topical importance a topical fad had been created that helped shape public opinion, while also making a buck for those in the music business.
One of the most noticeable themes of this topical fad is what Ronald Schaffer called the “unity motif” of propaganda that enlisting and serving with American grit, Americans can win the war in Europe and it is a paramount theme contained in the pop songs about World War I. Up-tempo and catchy enlisting songs in tempo di marcia boldly and proudly announce how tenacious American will fix the problems in Europe when the Europeans themselves could not do so and helped create patriotic enthusiasm when the United States clearly did not have enough troops to back up its commitment to war. The United States had only 107,000 men in service at the beginning of 1917, whereas hundreds of thousands of soldier had already fought and died in the war. Songs like “Good-Bye Broadway, Hello, France” encouraged participation by claiming “We’re ten million strong…It won’t take us long.” Perhaps the most famous song of the First World War, and one of the most famous songs in all of American history, “Over There” by George M Cohan, declares that the Yanks “won’t come back till it’s over over there.” The song “Just Like Washington Crossed the Delaware, General Pershing Will Cross the Rhine” equates American aid in Europe with the fight for liberty of the American revolution,
Take our own great Revolution That began our evolution
Washington then won his fame
Today across the sea, They’re making history
The Yankee spirit still remains the same.
Comical character songs describe how often bumbling fools can become brave and accomplished war heroes, for example, Tony the barber in “When Tony Goes Over The Top,” who “could shave you, He’d cut you from ear to ear” shows his fortitude and becomes a “regular hero, They call him Italian Ace.” In “Good-bye Broadway Hello France,” historical references show American necessity of aiding France by remembering the Marquis de LaFayette and his contributions to the American Revolution at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781, “Brave LaFayette/When deeds and fame we cannot forget” French aid during the American revolution and how American aid to France will “square our debt with you.” Such songs of American unity and fighting spirit not only give a bouncy song in march tempo, but they glorify enlisting and participation, creating positive public support of sending American soldier to Europe even by making historical references.
Just as there are songs about American enthusiasm to enlist and fight alongside the Allies, there are also songs about the enemy, and in the American case, it was Germany and the face of the German Empire, Kaiser Wilhelm II. American aggression was aimed directly at Germany, after all, German submarines had been sinking ships in the Atlantic for a year before the United States declared war. American advertising images are flush with the “Mad Brute” of Germany and the CPI even produced pamphlets that “implied that Germans in general were guilty of their country’s transgressions.” This trend was prominently featured on the covers of sheet music and lyrics of World War I songs. The word “Hun,” a historical reference to invading nomads into Europe during the fourth and fifth centuries, appears frequently as a choice slur and convenient rhyming word throughout many of the songs censuring Germany’s role in the war. The words of “Hunting the Hun” are quite brutal, even though the song is structured in the form of a nursery rhyme and the hunt for the Hun is expressed almost like a children’s playground game. The song “We’ll Knock the Heligo-Into Heligo-Out of Heligoland!” about the first naval battle of the war in 1914, but historically inaccurate and written in 1917, is all about how the Americans will “get the Kaiser’s goat” by winning the battle, along with characterizations of killing the Hun. Many of these songs are not necessarily about violence of war or the death of the Kaiser, instead they include humiliation and treating “Kaiser Bill” as he was known in many lyrics, as a caricature with a funny moustache. The sheet music of “Who’s Afraid of the Kaiser!!!” by L. Wolfe Gilbert and Anatol Friedland shows American soldiers trimming a farcically large upturned moustache of the style worn by Wilhelm II. In “We’re Going to Hang the Kaiser (Under the Linden Tree),” trimming his moustache “nice and neat” is a part of humiliation before hanging Kaiser Bill. Not only did songs reflect the opinion that Germany and its leader were responsible for the war, some songs even take personal shots at the Kaiser.
Not all song treatments dealt with pressing matters of a crusade for liberty or total castigation for a nation or leader like Kaiser Bill. The music business was still the music business and selling entertaining, catchy songs was still the goal, and this required writing more light-hearted material that appealed to music consumers who may have been a little tired of constantly hearing rousing marches. The song “Good-Bye Broadway, Hello France” comes with consumer-friendly footnotes like “Name of any city may be Substituted for Broadway if desired,” or an announcement that “This composition may also be had for your Talking Machine or Player Piano.” There were humorous entertaining war songs about Americans out-of-context from America, usually in France or somewhere “over there,” an all-purpose phrase used to describe the geographical distant between the United States and Europe. There is important entertainment value in these songs, since, American hearts and minds needed to be entertained rather than constantly persuaded. The entertaining and comical nature in songs about the First World War is evident by a cast of characters of racial and ethnic stereotypes that stretch from the earliest days of the Ragtime Era; nearly all stereotypes came back into fashion. This includes wartime Coon songs like “When I Gets Out in No-Mans Land (I Can’t Be Bother’d With No Mule)” (1918), songs about country Rubes like “It’s a Long Way to Berlin, But We’ll Get There,” (1918), and racial caricatures like Tony the “fighting Wop” in “When Tony Goes Over the Top” and the Irish “Mick” Paddy Mack in “Where do We Go From Here?” (1917). There were not just serious songs about the importance of war, but also commercial elements of humorous pop songs, no matter the patriotic and topical subject matter.
Another popular topic that was more entertaining than informative with persuasive jargon, was the World War I love song. Love is common entertainment fodder for consumers since it gets them to purchase themes that were common in already popular songs, but in the case of the First World War, the plots of such songs were usually focused on the relations between soldiers and nurses or Americans and the French. According to John Keegan, “[The doughboys] personal popularity was everywhere noted. The American were light-hearted, cheerful, enthusiastic, dismissive of difficulties” and such sentiments are expressed in love songs. For songs involving soldiers and nurses, pithy loving sentiment usually shields that fact that the soldiers in the song is injured and such songs add more light-hearted elements to warfare. The song “My Red Cross Girlie” is all about how “Ev’ry Red Cross girlie like a soldier/There’s a feeling in her heart akin to love” with part of the refrain offering comfort for the nurse when receiving an injured soldier, the speaker in this song:
I need you sweetheart for I am wounded,
By a cunning fellow’s dart,
But don’t swoon, dear, for the wound, dear,
Is only somewhere in my heart.
With American servicemen only temporarily in France for the war, it is inevitable that any relationship that may be kindled will likely end, and so, some wartime breakup songs create sentimental moments of temporary lovers separating. Take, “Don’t Cry Frenchy, Don’t Cry,” for example, in which a soldier in Flanders has to “leave her alone in Flanders” and yet promises that “We’ll hear wedding bells chime.” Naturally, language is prominent in these love songs between American and French and entertaining and humorous moments ensue when both parties cannot understand one another. The song “And He’d Say Oo-La-La Wee Wee describes how American serviceman will “break a million heart” when he returns to “Paree” with proficient French language skills, patriotically suggesting that American men would make the French girls swoon. In the song ‘Oh! Frenchy,” a nurse named Rosie Green believes that the French word “oui means you and me, la la” and even though their continued linguistic impasse continues, she brings Soldier Jean to mean her “rural Ma and Pa” in Maine. The character Willie Earl in the song “And He’d Say Oo-La-La Wee Wee” has numerous comic misunderstandings with a French girl, and reverts to using the only French phrase he knows, “oo-la-la wee wee.” The character Johnny in “Oui Oui Marie (Wee Wee Marie)” tells his girl that he’ll learns French if she gives him a kiss, offering a playful and humorous context of the language barriers. Such songs add new elements to familiar topics of love, but done so within the context of Americans in a new place, doing something new, while also entertaining music consumers with pithy and comic love stories set in France.
There is one glaring omission from all of these songs about life in the trenches, that they never really reflect the true realties about soldier life in the First World War. Truthfully, life in the trenches was something that music consumers were unlikely to find desirable or palatable. The methods of warfare on the Western Front included digging as many trenches as possible, and using newly developed technology to kill or disable as many soldiers as possible. Shrapnel-filled warheads, warplanes, asphyxiating chemical gasses, flame throwers, tanks and automatic machine guns became facts of everyday life on the front line as did lice, rats and dysentery. Daily life was filled with boredom. Gary Meade points out that the trenches were and “awful purgatory of banal things…being at the mercy of the elements, a poor diet, the filthy grime and the ubiquitous ‘cootie’.” Irving Berlin’s “Oh! How I Hate To Get Up in the Morning” written by Berlin while serving in France and dedicated to his bunk mate Private Howard Friend who “feels as I do about the ‘bugler’,” comes close to reality, expressing derision at the bugler, whose only job is to blow the bugle in the morning and then go back to sleep. Homesickness and boredom helped to create a musical culture in the trenches and pop songs that had been en vogue back home had been sung in the trenches like “There’s a Long, Long Trail,” “Good-Bye, Good Luck, God Bless You” and “Turn Back the Universe and Give Me Yesterday.” But soldiers also composed their own song lyrics expressing daily life at the front. Soldier songs range from sarcastic like “Oh What a Lovely War” to romantic torch songs to expressing exasperation at the horrors of war. The lyrics in a verse of “The Trench” poignantly mix the beauty of the countryside with reminders of what the goals of warfare are,
All the night the frogs go chuckle, all the day the birds are singing
In the pond beside the meadow, by the roadway poplar-lined,
In the field between the trenches are a million blossoms springing
‘Twixt the grass of silver bayonets where the lines of battle wind
Where man has manned the trenches for the maiming of his kind.
Even though the commercial pop songs about soldiers in the war, including patriotic marches and entertaining characters and love songs, it is unlikely that consumers could not handle the actualities of war at the front.
The First World War was a challenging time in America, but the songs about the war at least entertained music consumers. Albeit part of a propaganda campaign that was everywhere in American society, these songs provided an outlet for the many Americans who knew someone to go “somewhere over there.” But the phenomenon had all of the hallmarks of a musical fad like the brief and intense nature of its popularity, but it was far from being a fad. Composers and publishing houses aided in the sort of propaganda campaign to get Americans interested and supportive of participation in the war that had already claimed hundreds of thousands of lives over the course of a couple years. Songs about American pugnacious and tenacious attitude towards warfare and encouragement about enlisting quickly became marketing, commercial fodder. But there was a more light-hearted side of the rash of World War I song, that entertaining and humorous songs about Americans overseas, including social difficulties and love songs of various nuances, became part of the escapism of the war. The songs of the First World War would become a commercial, yet propaganda laden moment of pop song history.
Flagg, James Montgomery. “I Am Telling You.” Poster. 1918. Reproduced in Peter Paret, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret, Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Hischak, Thomas H. The Tin Pan Alley Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.
Hopps, H.R. “Destroy This Mad Brute.” Poster. c.1917. Reproduced in Peter Paret, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret, Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Keegan, John. The First World War. New York: Vintage Books. 1998.
May, Ernest R. The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1959.
MacGill, Patrick. The Trenches. “Soldier Songs of Patrick MacGill.” The World War I Document Archive. Richard Packen, ed. 15 July 2009. http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Soldier_Songs_of_World_War_I.
Mead, Gary. The Doughboys: America and the First World War. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press. 2000.
Paret, Peter, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret. Persuasive Images: Poster of War and Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1992.
Pennell, Joseph. “That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth.” Poster. 1918. Reproduced in Peter Paret, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret, Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
“Popular Songs Sung by the Soldier.” World War One Music and Songs. Accessed 4 September 2014. http://www.ww1photos.com/WW1MusicIndex.html.
“Popular Songs of World War I.” Cylinders Preservation and Digitization Project. Accessed 5 September 2014. http://cylinders.library.ucsb.edu/wwi-radio.php.
Princeton Alumni Weekly. Princeton, NJ. Volume 17, no. 36. Accessed 3 September 2014 via Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=chJbAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA859&lpg=PA859&dq=kaiser+bill+linden+tree&source=bl&ots=RbnjRLQLCu&sig=eEvSGYZ2xPk5y7wp6ELmFcmJgUM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=q8AHVOqHJpHLggT16YCoBQ&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=kaiser%20bill%20linden%20tree&f=false.
Schaffer, Ronald. America in the Great War: The Rise of the War Welfare State. New York: Oxford University Press. 1991.
Schneck. “It’s Up To You. Protect the Nation’s Honor.” Poster. c.1917. Reproduced in Peter Paret, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret, Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992).
Song list from Ziegfeld Follies of 1917. International Broadway Database. Accessed 3 September 2014. http://ibdb.com/production.php?id=8558.
Van Wienen, Mark W. Partisans and Poets: The Political World of American Poetry in the Great War. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1997.
Walsh, Thomas P. Tin Pan Alley and the Philippines: American Songs of War and Love, 1898-1946, A Resource Guide. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc. 2013.
Watts, Steven. The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century. New York: Alfred Knopf. 2005.
Whitburn, Joel. Pop Memories, 1890-1954: A History of American Popular Music. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research Inc. 1986.
Baskette, Billy (music) and C. Francis Reisner and Benny Davis (lyrics). Good-bye Broadway, Hello France. New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1917.
Berlin, Irving. Oh! How I Hate To Get Up in the Morning. New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1918.
Case, C.C. (music) and F.G. McCauley (lyrics). I Did Not Raise My Boy to Be a Coward. Wellington, OH: F.G. McCauley. 1917.
George M Cohan. Over There. New York: William Jerome Pub. Corp. 1917.
Conrad, Con (music) and Sam Ehrlich (lyrics). Oh! Frenchy. New York: Broadway Music Corporation. 1918.
Donaldson, Walter (music) and Sam M. Lewis and Joe Young (lyrics). Don’t Cry Frenchy, Don’t Cry. New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1919.
Fischer, Fred (music) and Alfred Bryan and Joe McCarthy (lyrics). Oui Oui Marie (Wee Wee Marie). New York: McCarthy & Fischer Inc. 1918.
Gilbert, L. Wolfe and Anatol Friedland. Who’s Afraid of the Kaiser? New York: Gilbert & Friedland Inc. 1918.
Gottler, Archie (music) and Howard E. Rogers (lyrics). Hunting the Hun. New York: Kalmar, Puck & Abrahams Consol’t’d Inc. 1918.
Johnson, Howard and Percy Wenrich. Where Do We Go From Here? New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1917.
Kendis and Brockman. We’re Going to Hang the Kaiser (Under the Linden Tree). New York: Kendis-Brockman Music Co. 1917.
Marr, Alex, Billy Frisch, and Archie Fletcher. When Tony Goes Over the Top. New York: The Joe Morris Music Co. 1918.
Meyer, George W. (music) and Howard Johnson (lyrics). (Just Like Washington Crossed the Delaware) General Pershing Will Cross the Rhine. New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1918.
Morse, Theodore (music) and John O’Brien (lyrics). We’ll Knock the Heligo-Into Heligo-Out of Heligoland! New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1917.
Morse, Theodore (music) and Harry Hewley (lyrics). My Red Cross Girlie (The Would is Somewhere in My Heart). New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1917.
Nelson, Ed (music) and Will Hart (lyrics). When Yankee Doodle Learns to Parlez Vous Francais. New York: A.J. Stassy Music Co. 1917.
O’Kane, T.C. (music) and John Hay (lyrics). The Boys Will Soon Be Home. Cincinnati, OH: A.C. Peters & Brain. 1864.
Piantadosi, Al (music) and Alfred Bryan (lyrics). I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier. New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1915.
Ruby, Harry and George Jessel. And He’d Say Oo-La-La! Wee-Wee. New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1919.
Tucker, Harry (music) and Charles C. Sawyer. When This Cruel War Is Over. Columbia, SC: Geo. Dunn & Company. N.d.
Von Tilzer, Albert (words) and Will Dillon (lyrics). Don’t Send My Darling Boy Away. New York: Broadway Music Corporation. 1915.
Von Tilzer, Albert (music) and Lewis Brown and Charles McCarron (lyrics). What Kind of American Are You? New York: Broadway Music Corporation. 1917.
 Harry Tucker (music) and Charles C. Sawyer, When This Cruel War Is Over, (Columbia, SC: Geo. Dunn & Comp, n.d.).
 T.C. O’Kane (music) and John Hay (lyrics), The Boys Will Soon Be Home, (Cincinnati, OH: A.C. Peters & Bro, 1864).
 Thomas P. Walsh, Tin Pan Alley and the Philippines: American Songs of War and Love, 1898-1946, (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2013), 381.
 For an insight to the Hawaiian song fad of 1915 and 1916, see Morgan Howland, “Hapa Haole Numbers: The Hawaiian Craze,” Pop Song History (blog), 19 August 2014, https://popsonghistory.wordpress.com/2014/08/19/hapa-haole-numbers-the-hawaiian-craze/
 Ernest R. May, The World War and American Isolation, 1914-1917, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959), 38.
 Henry Ford, qtd in Steven Watts, The People’s Tycoon: Henry Ford and the American Century, (New York: Alfred Knopf, 2005), 229.
 Albert Von Tilzer (music) and Will Dillon (lyrics), Don’t Take My Darling Boy Away, (New York: Broadway Music Corporation, 1915).
 Joel Whitburn, Pop Memories, 1890-1954: A History of American Popular Music, (Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research Inc, 1986), 647.
 Al Piantadosi (music) and Alfred Bryan (lyrics), I Didn’t Raise My Boy To Be a Soldier, (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1915).
 Mark W. van Wienen, Partisans and Poets: The Political Work of American Poetry in the Great War, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 58.
 Ronald Schaffer, American in the Great War: The Rise of the War Welfare State, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 12.
 James Montgomery Flagg, “I Am Telling You,” poster, 1918, in Peter Paret, Beth Irwin Lewis and Paul Paret, Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), 70.
 Schneck, “It’s Up To You. Protect the Nation’s Honor,” poster c.1917, in Paret, Lewis and Paret, 54.
 Joseph Pennell, “That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth,” poster, 1918, in Paret, Lewis and Paret, 75.
 Princeton Alumni Weekly, Princeton, NJ, volume 17, no. 36, Accessed 3 September 2014, http://books.google.com/books?id=chJbAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA859&lpg=PA859&dq=kaiser+bill+linden+tree&source=bl&ots=RbnjRLQLCu&sig=eEvSGYZ2xPk5y7wp6ELmFcmJgUM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=q8AHVOqHJpHLggT16YCoBQ&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=kaiser%20bill%20linden%20tree&f=false
 Albert Von Tilzer, (music) and Lewis Brown and Charles McCarron (lyrics), What Kind of American Are You?, (New York: Broadway Music Corporation, 1917).
 Thomas H. Hiscak, The Tin Pan Alley Encyclopedia, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), 154.
 C.C. Case (music) and F.G. McCauley (lyrics), I Did Not Raise My Boy to Be a Coward, (Wellington, OH: F.G. McCauley, 1917).
 Schaffer, 6.
 John Keegan, The First World War, (New York: Vintage Books, 1998), 372.
 Billy Baskette (music) and C. Francis Reisner and Benny Davis (lyrics), Good-Bye Broadway, Hello France, (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1917).
 George M Cohan, Over There, (New York: William Jerome Pub. Corp, 1917).
 George W. Meyer (music) and Howard Johnson (lyrics), (Lust Like Washington Crossed the Delaware) General Pershing Will Cross the Rhine, (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1918).
 Alex Marr, Billy Frisch, and Archie Fletcher, When Tony Goes Over the Top, (New York: The Joe Morris Music Co, 1918).
 Baskette, Reisner and Davis, Good-bye Broadway, Hello France.
 H.R. Hopps, “Destroy This Mad Brute,” poster, c.1917, in Paret, Lewis and Paret, 25.
 Schaffer, 8.
 Archie Gottler (music) and Howard E. Rogers (lyrics), Hunting the Hun, (New York: Kalmar, Puck & Abrahams Consol’t’d Inc, 1918).
 Theodore Morse (music) and John O’Brien (lyrics), We’ll Knock the Heligo-Into Heligo-Out of Heligoland!, (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1917).
 L. Wolfe Gilbert and Anatol Friedland, Who’s Afraid of the Kaiser?, (New York: Gilbert & Friedland Inc, 1918).
 Kendis and Brockman. We’re Going to Hang the Kaiser (Under the Linden Tree), (New York: Kendis-Brockman Music Co, 1917).
 Baskette, Reisner and Davis, Good-bye Broadway, Hello France.
 Howard Johnson and Percy Wenrich, Where Do We Go From Here?” (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1917).
 Keegan, 374.
 Theodore Morse (music) and Harry Hewley (lyrics), My Red Cross Girlie (The Would is Somewhere in My Heart), (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1917).
 Walter Donaldson (music) and Sam M. Lewis and Joe Young (lyrics), Don’t Cry Frenchy, Don’t Cry, (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co, 1919).
 Harry Ruby and George Jessel. And He’d Say Oo-La-La! Wee-Wee, (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co, 1919).
 Ed Nelson (music) and Will Hart (lyrics), When Yankee Doodle Learns to Parlez Vous Francais, (New York: A.J. Stassy Music Co, 1917).
 Con Conrad (music) and Sam Ehrlich (lyrics), Oh! Frenchy, (New York: Broadway Music Corporation, 1918).
 Ruby and Jessel, And He’d Say Oo-La-La! Wee-Wee.
 Fred Fischer (music) and Alfred Bryan and Joe McCarthy (lyrics), Oui Oui Marie (Wee Wee Marie), (New York: McCarthy & Fischer Inc, 1918).
 Gary Mead, The Doughboys: America and the First World War, (Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press, 2000), 191.
 Irving Berlin, Oh! How I Hate To Get Up in the Morning, (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co, 1918).
 Berlin, Oh! How I Hate To Get Up in the Morning.
 Patrick MacGill, The Trenches, “Soldiers Songs by Patrick MacGill,” The World War I Document Archive, Richard Hacken, ed, last modifies 15 July 2009, http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Soldier_Songs_of_World_War_I