Archive | August 2014

Hapa Haole Numbers: The Hawaiian Craze

Geographically based trends and fads are infrequent throughout the history of American commercial pop songs. One example of geographic song has been explored earlier in this series,[1] the Irish trend of the early twentieth century, and it was a song trend which not only prominently featured Ireland as a geographic place, but also the connection the characters in the lyrics have with the Emerald Isle. Other than the rash of Irish songs, many titles of which have become beloved over the decades, there are not many outstanding trends based on location and place. There have been a substantial number of individual songs that focus specifically on a place. Think about how many songs there are about California in the American pop canon like Al Jolson’s “California, Here I Come” (1924), The Beach Boys’ “California Girls” (1965) The Mamas and the Papas “California Dreamin’” (1966), Scott McKenzie’s “If You’re Going to San Francisco” (1967), Tupac Shakur’s “California” (1996), Weezer’s “Beverly Hills” (2005) or Katy Perry’s “California Gurls” (2010). These songs are not part of a cohesive trend; instead, they are individual and incidental popular song moments. However, there was a brief geographical song fad that rippled through pop culture in the mid-1910s, with pop songs about Hawaii becoming the latest commercial music product of Tin Pan Alley, a fad which came on quickly and then faded within a couple of years.

Sparked by the popularity of Hawaiian musical acts at the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, it became vogue for composers and publishing houses to churn out Tin Pan Alley visions of Hawaii. Unlike the Irish phenomenon, a trend which had lasting consequences in popular music memory, the Hawaiian craze was a consumer targeted fad, the goal of which included selling an image and riding the wave of the fad’s popularity. In Irish songs, by comparison, Irish characteristics were the focus, along with all the jokes, references to Ireland and Irish pop culture, songs targeted to music consumers who may understand such connotations. The Hawaiian fad, on the other hand was substantially less dimensional, where mass commercial consumers on the mainland were less likely to have a full grasp of Hawaii beyond limited and passing information about the islands. Most of these hapa haole[2] titles featured common themes of love impacted by the distance of Hawaii from North America, while other songs use a select number of oft-repeated Hawaiian buzzwords. Consequently, according to Michael Keany, “The hapa haole music being produced at this time didn’t often have much to do with real Hawaiian culture.”[3] These Hawaiian themes and superficial references were likely easily digestible with audiences in the midst of a fad about a new and exotic place, all the while packaged within an illustrated, decorative and fashionable piece of music. Upon review of the songs from this brief period, it is surprising to note that nearly every song was not necessarily about Hawaii, rather its main port and territorial capital, Honolulu. While brief, the hapa haole music fad of the 1910s gave composers an opportunity to create new songs from oft-used themes and language, resulting in a homogenous music product easily understood by a collective mass audience.

Music from or about Hawaii was not a new arrival to American pop culture when the Panama-Pacific Exposition opened in 1915, in fact, Hawaiian musicians had been producing traditional music for centuries and commercial music for decades. Hawaiian royalty were even involved in the music business. In 1874, King Kalakaua composed what would become the state song of Hawai’i, “Hawai’i Pono’i,” a hymn celebrating King Kamehameha’s unification of the islands. In 1878, Queen Lili’oukalani wrote “Alohe Oe,” a song reworked many times throughout the decades by Tin Pan Alley staff arrangers, translators and published in various editions by various firms; in June 2007, a group of panellists from Honolulu Magazine named “Aloha Oe” the greatest song of Hawaii. Hawaiian recording artists also lent their voices to the talking machine like Toots Paka Hawaiians and Albert R. “Sonny” Cuhna, designated “the father of Hapa Haole Songs” according to the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame.[4] The Hawaiian-themed show Bird of Paradise from 1912 had a successful run on Broadway followed by a national tour, bringing Hawaiian musicians publicity and exposure.[5] Hawaiians were also subjects of songs in the early years of Ragtime in the mid 1890s when coon songs were all the rage, but included under the racial umbrella of coons in lyrics, evident in the songs of composer Lee Johnson. In his “My Honolulu Lady” form 1898, he writes of bringing home a “choc’late culled” Hawaiian girl to “show dem coons and wenches style,”[6] suggesting that Hawaiian girls are somewhat classier than the typified “coon.” Another Hawaiian coon song, “The Bella of Honolulu,” also written by Johnson, is less raggy and dialectical but still has “blacked-up” lyrics when describing the wedding of a “Honolulu hula queen.”[7] William H. Penn’s “My Honolulu Queen” from 1899 is also part of this racial characterisation of Native Hawaiians, “And although her face a dusky shade is/She is my Honolulu Queen.”[8] This classification eventually fell out of favour after coon songs became less abundant on the pop market by the end of the 1900s, and songs like Tom Armstrong’s “My Rose of Honolulu” (1911) focus more on love for his “sweet Hawaiian maiden”[9] than her ethnicity. Even before the Hawaiian song craze of 1915, songs about Hawaii and Hawaiians had been on the American pop culture radar, even included in early Ragtime and placed within the cultural context of coon songs.

In 1915, the Panama-Pacific Exposition opened in San Francisco, celebrating the completion of the Panama Canal, and one of the attractions available to fair-goers was the Hawaiian Pavilion which showcased the culture, people and music of Hawaii. The Pavilion, located in the vicinity of the California Building and the Boat Harbor, near the centre of the Fair,[10] featured artefacts including canoes of various Hawaiian woods, grass huts, and “making fire with two sticks by friction.”[11] Although Heather Diamond mentions that Hawaii’s participation at the World Fair was for business prospecting and that Native Hawaiian images were heavily managed and scripted,[12] an estimated 17 million people over the span of nine months visited the exhibit.[13] Hawaiian musicians performed there several times a day, including steel guitar players, ukulele performances and guest musicians including the Royal Hawaiian Quartet, Joseph Kekuku, Pale K. Lua and David Ka’ili.[14] Consequently, with so many people in attendance, in 1915 and into 1916, the ukulele, the Hula and everything else associated with Hawaii became part of pop culture pandemonium, including the song “On the Beach in Waikiki” which became a national hit at a time when “many Americans had never been exposed to Hawaiian music.”[15] Composers and lyricists of Tin Pan Alley found themselves in the epicentre of full-on music publishing craze, and dozens of songs and recordings flew out of the offices of publishing firms and record companies eager to attract consumer attention.

The kingdom of Hawaii’s relatively recent entry into United States by annexation in 1898 brought a new geographical area to pop culture attention[16] and an easy way to market music about the islands included producing dreamy descriptions of a new and paradisal place. Stylish cover art frequently advertised the setting of Hawaiian songs with beaming moonlight on a seashore, palm trees and lovers fraternising in the climate of the islands, exactly the sort of material that could possibly entice consumers.[17] Song lyrics also gave consumers loving descriptions of a new exotic place including the constant perception of Hawaii as a seaside paradise. The Earl Burtnett tune “Down Honolulu Way” from 1916 reads like a love letter to the Hawaiian environment including descriptions of the islands where “the moon is always shining,” “palm trees swaying” and “whispering to me of a blue singing sea.[18] In “My Lonely Lola Lo” a similar setting is given where “Banyan trees are softly swaying to and fro, in Hawaii/While the cooling South Sea Island breezes blow, in Hawaii.[19] The Irving Berlin song “I’m Down in Honolulu (Looking them Over)” from 1916 adds a more bawdy element to the descriptions of the climate of Hawaii by discussing his wardrobe, “Try and guess the way I dress/No matter what you think it is, it’s even less.[20] By creating song lyrics with a unifying theme of a tropical paradise, it was uncomplicated to sell the image of Hawaii and with a demand for Hawaiian-themed products high, composers were more than willing to create an ample and seemingly homogenous supply.

Other than being a tropical locale, Hawaii is, after all, located thousands of miles away from the United States mainland and a novel way to address this fact by composers is to use Hawaii’s distance to give another perspective to love songs. By including distance between two lovers as part of the plotlines, composers could successfully give consumers the familiar topic of love, albeit in formulaic ways; note the abundance of copied themes in the following examples. The song “Dear Old Dreamy Honolulu Town” is entirely about the anticipation of arriving in Honolulu to meet his “dark eyed gal” once more,[21] a plot repeated in “Down Honolulu Way.”[22] In the torch song “I Left Her on the Beach in Honolulu,” from the Ziegfeld Follies of 1916, the speaker of the song in the first verse sets the scene of heartbreak and longing:

       My heart is yearning, My thoughts are turning ever,

       A maid, I met her, I can forget her never,

       She was a sweet Hawaiian, A little Hula dancing maiden,

       And for her now I’m sighin’, My heart with love is heavy laden.[23]

Such sad sentiment of distance and love is mirrored in the song “Hawaiian Butterfly,” in which the speaker in the song is lovelorn and “she simply carried my heart away.”[24] Returning is also a common motif, in the Gus Edwards song “I Lost My Heart in Honolulu,” the speaker in the lyrics is heartbroken when he has to leave Honolulu, on the other hand, is elated when he is restless to get back to Hawaii to wed “some girl.”[25] The same sentiment is in the 1915 Irving Berlin hit “My Bird of Paradise,” in which the speaker in the song writes a letter to his “Honolulu girl” saying that he will return to her.[26] A less formulaic way of talking about distance is by complaining about the unequivocally high cost of telephoning Hawaii, a plot point which is the focus of the song “Hello, Hawaii, How Are You?” in which case the speaker in the lyrics goes broke calling his “Honolulu Lou” to “give me a kiss by wireless” and then only has time to say “hello.”[27] By addressing ideas of love within the context of Hawaii’s relative distance from the mainland, composers and lyricists created lyrically analogous songs for consumers.

Fundamentally, the hapa haole fad give consumers a product that was familiar and yet fresh within the setting of a new place, but as a geographic location where action happened, representations of Hawaii are lacking, in fact in most of the songs of the times, even those not analysed for this essay, are about the territorial capital and port city of Honolulu, not Hawaii and by looking at where songs take place, it is apparent that the hapa haole fad was more about Honolulu than Hawaii. This is evident when investigating the glut of similarly titled songs from 1916 alone like “My Rose of Honolulu,” “My Honolulu Bride,” “I Love You Honolulu,” “Honolulu Cabaret,” “Honolulu Blues,” “In Honolulu,” “Goodbye Honolulu,” “Dear Old Dreamy Honolulu Town,” and “Down Honolulu Way.” Titles containing the name of the city abound and even when Hawaii is part of the title of a song, the action happens in Honolulu. For example. in the 1917 Joseph Santly song “Hawaiian Butterfly,” which mentions “Somewhere in Hawaii, I’m sending a wire,” a set-up which generalizes about geography, gives into the use of “Beautiful Hulu, Down in dreamy Honolulu”[28] without making any other references to the islands other than the port city. Even in a song which is written specifically about how the Hawaiian fad had swept over American pop culture and how Hawaii has “made America happy,” the actual title of such a song is “Honolulu, America Loves You,” and throughout the song, the city is the focus of the lyrics.[29] It is worth noting that the sounds of the word Honolulu are euphonic, rhythmic and rhymes easily with other common words and so, besides a general setting, Honolulu is an easy lyrical word to use. While Hawaii was at the centre of the music fad, Honolulu was actually the specific geographic setting of many lyrics.

Even if the Hawaiian language was officially banned in schools on the islands following American annexation,[30] Hawaiian words like hula, aloha, and, ukulele, had entered into the American English lexicon and these new words saturate the lyrics of song, adding superficial cultural references and lyrical word play for audiences interested in Hawaii. A verse of “Honolulu America Loves You,” a song self-referential to the Hawaiian craze, insists that everybody in cafés now dances the Hula and that “Our millionaires are playing Ukalele’s too.”[31] Bill Bailey, popularized in the 1902 Hughie Cannon song “Bill Bailey Won’t You Please Come Home,” made an appearance during the Hawaiian craze playing a ukulele, “When Old Bill Bailey plays the Ukalele Down in Honolulu they do the ‘Hula Hula’/Ev’ry evening there they are, swayin’ while he’s playin’ his Hawaiian guitar.”[32] The refrain from the Irving Berlin tune “That Hula Hula” from 1916 illustrates just how invasive Hawaiian words were during this fad; note that there are no real descriptions, just superficial inclusion of repetitious words.

       That Hula Hula, Have you seen them do the Hula Hula

       In Honolula, The way they do?

       I know, if you know, How to do the Hula Hula,

       You’d be in Honolula doing the Hula Too[33]

In the lyrics of E. Ray Goetz’s “Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula” from 1916 alone, the word hula appears 17 different times, not counting a second repeat of the refrain. It should be noted that hapa haole songs before the fad, like “My Rose of Honolulu” from 1911 or “Honolulu Lu” from 1902, do not regularly include or overuse such Hawaiian words in their lyrics and it seems apparent that the incorporation of such words was inherently part of the fad in the mid 1910s. Inclusion of a few buzzword of Hawaiian extraction within lyrics was another method of attracting consumers to the homogenous sorts of Hawaiian songs during the mid-1910s fad.

With the exotic tropical climate in focus and the few words of Hawaiian extraction in American English in nearly every song, oftentimes the Hawaiian language was imitated, but usually in nonsensical, rhythmic rhyming chatter, with lyricist-created phrases that could possibly be used as catchphrases. Even though the lyrics of “Honolulu America Loves You,” assert that “We’ll all be talkin’ Hawaiian very soon,”[34] most of the lyrics of other songs of Tin Pan Alley imitated the language in pop culture context, whether as a serious imitation of the language, as blatant double entendre or to express annoyance and ire at the extent of lyrical novelty occurring during the fad. A transparent attempt at imitating the Hawaiian language can be found in “Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula,” the lyrics of which describes that popularity of a fictitious Hawaiian phrase, every third line repeats the song title while reinforcing it to listeners’ memory. This technique also adds convenient lyrical filler and takes up space in the verses,

       Down Hawaii way, by the moonlit bay,

       When I lingered awhile, she stole my heart away,

       Yaaka hula hickey dula, Yaaka hula hickey du,

       Oh I don’t care if you’ve loved the ladies far and near,

       You’d forget about them all if you could hear.

       Yaaka hula hickey dula, Yaaka hula hickey du.[35]

“Oh! How She Could Yacki Hacki Wicki Wacki Woo” offers a more risqué imitation of Hawaiian but in this example the title’s semantically vacuous phrase is, presumably, a coy euphemism, along with the other meaningless phrases that manage to create more vulgar suggestions,

       She had a Hula, Hula, Hicki, Boola, Boola in her walk,

       She had a Ukalele Wicki Wicki Waili in her talk,

       And by the big Hawaiian moon,

       Beneath a banyan tree we’d spoon,…

       But Oh, how she could Yacki Hacki Wicki Wacki Woo, That’s love in Honolulu.[36]

Thomas Hischak mentions that some songs included imitations of the Hawaiian language in order to protest the superfluous lyrical content and intense popularity of the hapa haole craze,[37] which is unmistakable in the song “Yaddie Kaddie Kiddie Kaddie Koo,” when a man wonders “why do they sing that silly [phrase]?”[38] Certain composers were tiring of the Hawaii fad by 1917, including publishing of such titles as “The More I See Hawaii, The More I Like New York,” in which a speaker directly expresses the annoyance of the fad and such nonsense lyrics by being “sick and tired of hearing That crazy Yacki Hula talk.”[39] The fad in Hawaiian songs also made popular various ways in which the Hawaiian language was imitated within the song lyrics, whether as a serious attempt at copying the language, offering double entendre or expressing derision directly at the fad by mimicking the steady stream of nonsensical phrasing being published.

Songs about Hawaii coming from publishing houses and record studios flooded the music market in the mid 1910s, but the hapa haole fad would be brief. As the First World War consumed Europe and American military interests gradually shifted from isolationism to troop mobilisation and declaration of war, songs expressing enthusiasm of participating in the war in 1917 and 1918 quickly eclipsed the escapism of an exotic seaside paradise thousands of miles offshore, as did the new trendy music called Jazz. This quick end to the hapa haole publishing fad did not completely end America’s fascination with songs about the islands, in fact many waves of Hawaiian popularity have come and gone since 1915 and 1916. During the 1920s, a fad for the ukulele created a new market for manufacturing the instrument and sheet music commonly featured ukulele accompaniment. During the 1930s, “tropical escapism was a significant past-time in the depths of the great depression,”[40] and broadcasts of the radio show Hawaii Calls helped to reinvigorate the genre. Consequently, many pop songs from that decade also featured Hawaii as a destination like “Pagan Love Song” (1929), “Sweet Leilani” (1937), and Hawaiian-themed movies like the popular 1937 film Waikiki Wedding starring Bing Crosby. Hawaiian songs also had a resurgence of popularity during the 1950s. Although the Hawaiian song craze of the 1910s was brief, it was only the initiation of a broader American interest in songs about the islands.

By looking at the Hawaiian hapa haole fad of the mid-1910s, a number of methods for creating and propagating that fad emerge. Hawaii was a different locale for music consumers and with a hit song coming out of the 1915 World’s Fair in San Francisco, composers looked to create their own niche in the market. There are a number of ways in which composers and lyricists perpetuated the fad, by copying a number of unvarying lyrical mechanisms in which Hawaii, or rather Honolulu, was the setting of the plot, not by including anything remotely related to Hawaiian culture. When Hawaii was described, it was done so through the context of an island paradise. When Hawaii was the setting of the lyrics, it was usually accomplished by telling love stories just as in other Tin Pan Alley love song. But another pattern emerges from the homogenous nature of Hawaiian songs from this time, that buzzwords of Hawaiian extraction were used over and over again and the Hawaiian language was often imitated as nonsensical lyrical filler. These means were not universally accepted within the music business, in fact, there are a select few songs in which the Hawaiian song fad was addressed with exasperation. The Hawaiian song fad may have faded with the First World War on the horizon, but its inclusion in pop song history is a study of music marketing in fad form of supplying an in-demand product to music-hungry consumers.


“Albert S. ‘Sonny’ Cuhna.” Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame. Accessed 18 August 2014.

Bolante, Ronna and Michael Keany. “50 Greatest Hawaiian Songs.” Honolulu Magazine. 1 June 2007.

Cooper, Catherine R. Bridging Multiple Worlds: Cultures, Identities and Pathways to College. New York: Oxford University Press. 2011.

Diamond, Heather A. American Aloha: Tourism and the Negotiation of Tradition. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press. 2008.

The Exhibits of the Smithsonian Institution at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. San Francisco, CA: Press of H.S. Crocker Co. 1915.

Emmons, Keith. “The Covers: 1915-1919.” Accessed 14 August 2014.

——-. “The Covers: 1930-1939.” Accessed 14 August 2014.

Hischak, Thomas S. The Tin Pan Alley Encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Keany, Michael. “100 Years of Hawaiian Music.” Honolulu Magazine. November 2010.

Ruymar, Lorene. The Hawaiian Steel Guitar and Its Great Musicians. Lorene Ruymar, ed. Amaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Publishing, 1996.

Song List

Armstrong, Tom. Rose of Honolulu. New York: Jos. W. Stern & Co. 1911.

Baskette, Billy and Joseph Santly (music) and Geo. A Little (lyrics). Hawaiian Butterfly. New York: Leo. Feist Inc. 1917.

Berlin, Irving. I’m Down in Honolulu (Looking Them Over). New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1916.

——-. My Bird of Paradise (My Honolulu Girl). New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder. 1915.

——-. That Hula Hula. New York: Irving Berlin Inc. 1915.

Burtnett, Earl and Joseph A Burke (music) and J.E. Dempsey (lyrics). Down Honolulu Way. New York: Jerome H Remick & Co. 1916.

Cox, Eddie, Grant Clarke and Jimmie V. Monaco. Honolulu, America Loves You (We’ve Got to Hand It To You). New York: Leo Feist Inc. 1916.

Edwards, Gus (music) and Will D. Cobb (lyrics). I Lost My Heart in Honolulu. New York: Shapiro, Bernstein & Co Inc. 1916.

Goetz, E. Ray, Joe Young and Pete Wendling. Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula (Hawaiian Love Song). Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1916.

Gottler, Archie (music) and Bert Kalmar (lyrics). The More I See of Hawaii, The Better I Like New York. New York: Kalmar, Puck & Abrahms Consolidated Inc. 1917.

Johnson, Lee. The Belle of Honolulu. San Francisco, CA: Sherman, Clay & Co. 1898.

——-. My Honolulu Lady. London, UK: The Zeno Mauvais Music Co. 1898.

Lange, Arthur and F. Wallace Rega’ (Music) and Edgar T. Farran and Jeff T. Branen (lyrics). Dear Old Dreamy Honolulu Town. New York: Joe Morris Music Co. 1916.

McCarron, Chas and Nat. Vincent. When Old Bill Bailey Plays the Ukalele. New York: Broadway Music Corporation. 1915.

Meyer, George W (music) and Sam M. Lewis and Joe Young (lyrics). Yaddie Kaddie Kiddie Kaddie Koo. New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1916.

Murphy, Stanley, Arthur Lange and Alfred Solman. My Lonely Lola Lo (In Hawaii). New York: The Joe Morris Music Co. 1916.

Penn, William H. (music) and Jas. O’Dea (lyrics). My Honolulu Queen. Chicago, Il: Sol Bloom. 1899.

Schwartz, Jean (music) and Bert Kalmar and Edgar Leslie (lyrics). Hello, Hawaii, How Are You? New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co. 1915.

Von Tilzer, Albert (music) and Stanley Murphy and Chas. McCarron (lyrics). Oh! How She Could Yacki Hacki Wicki Wacki Woo (That’s Love in Honolulu). New York: Broadway Music Corporation. 1916.

[1] For a look at this essay, see Morgan Howland, “Hibernian Numbers: Irish Identity in Popular Song in the Early Twentieth Century,” Pop Song History (blog),

[2] Hapa Haole is a phrase commonly given to people or things, including songs, which have mixed white and Hawaiian elements, in the case of songs, Hawaiian songs written by white composers.

[3] Michael Keany, “100 Years of Hawaiian Music,” Honolulu Magazine, November 2010, accessed 14 August 2014,

[4] “Albert R. “Sonny” Cuhna,” Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame, accessed 18 August 2014,

[5] Lorene Ruymar, The Hawaiian Steel Guitar and it Great Hawaiian Musicians, Lorene Ruymar, editor, (Anaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Publishing, 1996), 31.

[6] Lee Johnson, My Honolulu Lady, (London, UK: The Zeno Mauvais Music Co, 1898).

[7] Lee Johnson, The Belle of Honolulu, (San Francisco, CA: Sherman, Clay & Co, 1898).

[8] William H. Penn (music) and Jas. O’Dea (lyrics), My Honolulu Queen, (Chicago, Il: Sol Bloom, 1899).

[9] Tom Armstrong, Rose of Honolulu, (New York: Jos. W. Stern & Co., 1911).

[10] Map of the Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, San Francisco Photo Collection, San Francisco Public Library, accessed 11 August 2014,

[11] The Exhibits of the Smithsonian Institution at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, (San Frasisico, CA: Press of H.S. Crocker Co, 1915), 107-108.

[12] Heather A. Diamond, American Aloha: Tourism and the Negotiation of Tradition, (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai’i Press, 2008), 23.

[13] Michael Keany, “100 Years of Hawaiian Music,” Honolulu Magazine, November 2010,

[14] Ruymar, 30.

[15] Keith Emmons, “The Covers: 1915-1919,”, accessed 14 august 2014,

[16] For an in-depth look at the annexation of Hawaii see Tom Coffman, Nation Within: The History of America’s Annexation of the Nation of Hawaii, (Kane’ohe, HI: Epicentre, 1999).

[17] For a gallery of cover art images of songs written during this era, see Keith Emmons, “The Covers: 1915-1919,”, accessed 11 August 2014,

[18] Earl Burtnett and Joseph A Burke (music) and J.E. Dempsey (lyrics), Down Honolulu Way, (New York: Jerome H Remick & Co, 1916).

[19] Stanley Murphy, Arthur Lange and Alfred Solman, My Lonely Lola Lo (In Hawaii), (New York: The Joe Morris Music Co., 1916).

[20] Irving Berlin, I’m Down in Honolulu (Looking Them Over), (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co., 1916).

[21] Arthur Lange and F. Wallace Rega’ (Music) and Edgar T. Farran and Jeff T. Branen (lyrics). Dear Old Dreamy Honolulu Town. New York: Joe Morris Music Co. 1916.

[22] Burtnett, Burke and Dempsey, Down Honolulu Way.

[23] Louis A Hirsch (music) and Gene Buck (lyrics), I Left Her on the Beach at Honolulu, (New York: T.B. Harms & Francis, Day & Hunter, 1916).

[24] Billy Baskette and Joseph Santly (music) and Geo. A Little (lyrics), Hawaiian Butterfly, (New York: Leo. Feist Inc, 1917).

[25] Gus Edwards (music) and Will D. Cobb (lyrics), I Lost My Heart in Honolulu, (New York: Shapiro, Bernstein & Co Inc, 1916).

[26] Irving Berlin, My Bird of Paradise (My Honolulu Girl), (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder, 1915).

[27] Jean Schwartz (music) and Bert Kalmar and Edgar Leslie (lyrics), Hello, Hawaii, How Are You?, (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co., 1915).

[28] Baskette, Santly and Little, Hawaiian Butterfly.

[29] Eddie Cox, Grant Clarke and Jimmie V. Monaco, Honolulu, America Loves You (We’ve Got to Hand It To You), (New York: Leo Feist Inc, 1916).

[30] Catherine R. Cooper, Bridging Multiple Worlds: Cultures, Identities and Pathways to College, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 68.

[31] Cox, Clarke and Monaco, Honolulu, America Loves You (We’ve Got to Hand It To You).

[32] Chas. McCarron and Nat. Vincent, When Old Bill Bailey Plays the Ukalele, (New York: Broadway Music Corporation, 1915).

[33] Irving Berlin, That Hula Hula, (New York: Irving Berlin Inc., 1915).

[34] Cox, Clarke and Monaco, Honolulu, America Loves You (We’ve Got to Hand It To You).

[35] E. Ray Goetz, Joe Young and Pete Wendling, Yaaka Hula Hickey Dula (Hawaiian Love Song), (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co., 1916).

[36] Albert Von Tilzer (music) and Stanley Murphy and Chas. McCarron (lyrics), Oh! How She Could Yacki Hacki Wicki Wacki Woo (That’s Love in Honolulu), (New York: Broadway Music Corporation, 1916).

[37] Thomas S. Hischak, The Tin Pan Alley Encyclopedia, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), 412.

[38] George W Meyer (music) and Sam M. Lewis and Joe Young (lyrics), Yaddie Kaddie Kiddie Kaddie Koo, (New York: Waterson, Berlin & Snyder Co, 1916).

[39] Archie Gottler (music) and Bert Kalmar (lyrics), The More I See of Hawaii, the More I Like New York, (New York: Kalmar, Puck & Abrahms Consolidated Inc. 1917).

[40] Keith Emmons, “The Covers: 1930-1939,”, accessed 14 August 2014,